1. Treating Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders
by Rossiter, T. & La Vaque, T.
The study compared treatment programs with EEG biofeedback or stimulants as their primary components. An EEG group (EEG) was matched with a stimulant group (MED) by age, IQ, gender and diagnosis. The Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) was administered pre and post treatment. EEG and MED groups improved (p < .05) on measures of inattention, impulsivity, information processing, and variability, but did not differ (p > 0.3) on TOVA change scores. The EEG biofeedback program is an effective alternative to stimulants and may be the treatment of choice when medication is ineffective, has side effects, or compliance is a problem.
2. Neurofeedback for the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD: a randomized and controlled clinical trial using parental reports
by Duric, N. & Assmus, J. & Gundersen, D. & Elgen, I. July 18 2012
A randomized and controlled clinical study was performed to evaluate the use of neurofeedback (NF) to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents.
The ADHD population was selected from an outpatient clinic for Child and Adolescent Mental Health in Norway. Ninety-one of the 275 children and adolescents ranging in age from 6 to 18 years (10.5 years) participated in 30 sessions of an intensive NF program. The reinforcement contingency was based on the subjects’ production of cortical beta1 activity (15–18 Hz). The ADHD participants were randomized into three groups, with 30 in the NF group, 31 controls in a group that was given methylphenidate, and 30 in a group that received NF and methylphenidate. ADHD core symptoms were reported by parents using the parent form of the Clinician’s Manual for Assessment by Russell A. Barkley.
Ninety-one children and adolescents were effectively randomized by age, sex, intelligence and distribution of ADHD core symptoms. The parents reported significant effects of the treatments, but no significant differences between the treatment groups were observed.
NF was as effective as methylphenidate at treating the attentional and hyperactivity symptoms of ADHD, based on parental reports
3. In-School Neurofeedback Training for ADHD: Sustained Improvements From a Randomized Control Trial
by: Naomi J. Steiner, MDa, Elizabeth C. Frenette, MPHa, Kirsten M. Rene, MAa, Robert T. Brennan, EdDb, and Ellen C. Perrin, MDa
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate sustained improvements 6 months after a 40-session, in-school computer attention training intervention using neurofeedback or cognitive training (CT) administered to 7- to 11-year-olds with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
METHODS: One hundred four children were randomly assigned to receive neurofeedback, CT, or a control condition and were evaluated 6 months postintervention. A 3-point growth model assessed change over time across the conditions on the Conners 3–Parent Assessment Report (Conners 3-P), the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Parent Form (BRIEF), and a systematic double-blinded classroom observation (Behavioral Observation of Students in Schools). Analysis of variance assessed community-initiated changes in stimulant medication.
RESULTS: Parent response rates were 90% at the 6-month follow-up. Six months postintervention, neurofeedback participants maintained significant gains on Conners 3-P (Inattention effect size [ES] = 0.34, Executive Functioning ES = 0.25, Hyperactivity/Impulsivity ES = 0.23) and BRIEF subscales including the Global Executive Composite (ES = 0.31), which remained significantly greater than gains found among children in CT and control conditions. Children in the CT condition showed delayed improvement over immediate postintervention ratings only on Conners 3-P Executive Functioning (ES = 0.18) and 2 BRIEF subscales. At the 6-month follow-up, neurofeedback participants maintained the same stimulant medication dosage, whereas participants in both CT and control conditions showed statistically and clinically significant increases (9 mg [P = .002] and 13 mg [P < .001], respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Neurofeedback participants made more prompt and greater improvements in ADHD symptoms, which were sustained at the 6-month follow-up, than did CT participants or those in the control group. This finding suggests that neurofeedback is a promising attention training treatment for children with ADHD.